is then wiped down with a solvent such as turpentine to
remove all grease from the surface.
To print a lithograph, the printer flushes the surface with
water, which is absorbed by the undrawn area but the
greasy drawn area rejects. The printer then applies oil-base
ink with a roller, and since water will not unite with oil the
ink sticks only to the grease and thereby forms the image
that can be pressure transferred to paper.
In a more modern, mechanized process called "Offset
lithography," the image to be printed is photographically
applied to a metal plate that is then mounted onto the roller
of a printing press. Ink is applied to the plate, transferred to
a rubber roller called a "blanket" and from the blanket onto
paper. Offset lithography is today the most widely used
method of printing.
Because the older method brings paper and printing
plate into direct contact with one another, the plate suffers a
certain degree of wear as each copy is pulled and this is why
low-number prints and artist proofs traditionally have been
more desirable than copies made toward the end of the
press run. Plate-wear is not a significant factor in offset
lithography so there is no longer any actual difference in
quality between the first print of an edition and the last one.
Lost Wax Process- Clay to wax to bronze--the lost wax
process is a method for changing a sculpture made of soft
clay into a harder material such as bronze. Changing the
clay to bronze involves two molds for each sculpture. The
first mold (made of plaster and rubber) yields a wax cast of
the sculpture. The hand pouring of the wax determines the
thickness, and therefore the weight, of the final bronze.
Immersing the wax cast in a liquid ceramic material forms
the basis of the second mold. When hardened, the material
can withstand the high temperature of the molten bronze.
Next, the mold is heated until the wax melts out or
disappears. Because the wax disappears, it becomes "lost
wax" as the name of the process implies. The resulting